【that 要怎麼判斷子句到哪裡?要怎麼判斷that包含A和B 還是只有包含A?】

One sometimes hears that Marco Polo introduced pasta to the Western world,having encountered it in China. This durable myth, which (i)____ that nothing should have been known of pasta in Italy until 1295, when Marco Polo returned from the Far East, can easily be (ii)____ by pointing out that there are Italian references to pasta that (iii)____.

A. requires

D. augmented

G. praise its virtues

B. demonstrates

E. debunked

H. can be authenicated

C. symbolizes

F. traced

I. predate that event


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第一空本身處在的位置是which關代開始的插入句。注意,插入句雖然是附屬句,但是裡面that後面因為是敘述完整事件,所以也應該是SVO的構成。因此,that後面的事情完整是『nothing should have been known of pasta in Italy until 1295, when Marco Polo returned from the Far East』。另外一個判斷的方式是主要句子的結構。已知This durable myth肯定是主句的主詞,所以主動詞肯定是can easily be…的那個位置。因此只要在主動詞前面的都是插入句(也就是that子句範圍的另一個判斷方式)。


而這題的邏輯拆解如以下:

1. 第一句:有時會聽到pasta是Marco Polo引入西方的(從閱讀跟邏輯角度來說,接下來可能要推翻這件事。回想一下閱讀課教過的重點提示字sometimes)

2. 第二句:講述如果第一句敘述(pasta是Marco Polo引入西方的)要成立的話,前提是nothing should have been known of pasta in Italy, when Marco Polo returned from the Far East(他回到西方之前,沒人知道pasta是什麼)。而正因為 There are Italian references to pasta that predate that event (1295年馬可波羅回來前,就有義大利的文獻資料提到pasta),所以這個Myth(pasta是Marco Polo引入西方的)被推翻了(easily debunked)


第二個問題,討論包含範圍前我們先釐清一下and的功用。

1.分隔兩個獨立的完整句字,並且這兩個句子之間的邏輯關聯性並不強。Eg. You cook the lunch, and I’ll look after the children.

2.平行。這時候包含範圍就是語意平行的合理性。Eg 1- He hates tasks that is tedious and boring. 像這邊很明顯tedious and boring語意就是形容tasks。因此包含範圍當然要到boring. Eg 2-I thought that you knew what happened and that you kept it secret on purpose。


像這邊就是『我以為的2件事情』在平行。

第一件事:that you knew what happened; 第二件事:that you kept it secret on purpose。


總結來說包含範圍的判斷可以從文法的平行,以及語意的平行著手。